During pregnancy, inflammation is higher at implantation and in labor whereas lower inflammation in mid-pregnancy. The gut microbiome was found in the amniotic fluid of women who experienced preterm premature rupture of membranes. This gut microbiome could play a role in intrauterine infections which helps to reduce the inflammation. During the prenatal period, hormone often fluctuates which results in inflammatory and immune changes that affect gut function and bacteria. Frequent changes in ovarian hormones during the prenatal and postpartum periods also affect digestion. The immune and metabolic changes that occur normally in pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy with metabolic syndrome.

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