Microbiota is the group of microorganisms which are bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, and viruses that are present in the defined environment. The microbiota varies according to its surrounding environment. So, microbiota in the gut refers to all the microbes in the intestinal tract which important for your health.
Human intestinal microbiota to grow from the beginning of birth although there is a limited number of studies showing that microbes were detected in womb tissues, such as the placenta. The ways of delivery affect the microbiota composition. After birth, the intestinal tract is rapidly colonized but it will be affected by many life events such as, food, environment and other factors that could cause major shifts in the microbiota. Infants that are delivered from natural birth, the growth of microbiota has a higher abundance of lactobacilli during the first few days whereas infants that are delivered by C-section are lower in colonization of the bacteroides genus Clostridium species are colonized during breastfeeding. The fecal microbiota from a natural birth infant is 72% whereby from a C-section infant is 41%. Nevertheless, as we age the living of microbiota are reduced and the aging process in the intestine is increased.
Why is gut microbiota important?
Essential amount of Gut microbiota provide fermentation of non-digestible food like dietary fibers and intestinal wall mucus. This fermentation supports the growth of specific microbes that produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases from the gut. The major short-chain fatty acids are acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
The uses of Butyrate:
✓ The main energy source for the epithelial cell of the colon✓ Prevent the growth of colon cancer cells✓ Breakdown glucose in the gut✓ Prevent imbalance of gut microbiota
The uses of Propionate:
✓Breakdown and regulate glucose in the liver✓Satiety signalling
The uses of Acetate:
✓Most abundant SCFA and an essential metabolite✓Regulate cholesterol level✓Breakdown fats✓Regulate appetite